The Bad Parts

  • time-sharing
  • memory-sharing

How To Avoid Time-Sharing

Use multiple CPUs.

(e.g. rPIs are cheap. Laptops are fairly cheap. Smart Phones are cheap (everybody has one)).

How To Avoid Memory-Sharing

Use Send().



Immutability is but one way to avoid memory-sharing.


Ownership is but one way to avoid memory-sharing.


Isolation is a superset of ownership and non-mutability.

Ownership and non-mutability are but implementation details (towards achieving isolation).

Deja Vu

Have we already tried isolation?

Yes - for example UNIX pipelines provide isolation.

Yes - distributed processing involves isolation.

Yes - HTML + Javascript provides distributed processing.


OO-style encapsulation encapsulates data.

Q: Does OO encapsulate control-flow?

Q: Does OO encapsulate control-flow? Consider method over-riding.


GOTO modifies control flow.

Q: Can you read programs written in GOTO style?


CPS (Continuation Passing Style) encapsulates control flow and data.

Q: How does CPS compare to GOTO?

Q: Can you read programs written in CPS style?

Spaghetti, Complexity, etc., etc.

If a component is isolated, then, we don’t care - can’t care - if it uses mutable state, or, is complex, or, is coded in a non-structured manner.

ICs - Integrated Circuits

Electronics ICs are built using oxides (rust).

We run software on top of various oxides.

When we pull out a 7400 chip out of a circuit and replace it with a 7400 from another manufacturer, do we care what variation of oxide the other manufacturer used?

Homebrew NMOS Transistor Step by Step - So Easy Even Jeri Can Do It

Homebrew NMOS

Q: Does Jeri’s NMOS transistor use immutable state?

Q: Does Jeri’s NMOS transitor use ownership?

Q: Do you care?

Q: Do your answers change if Jeri were to build a CPU instead of single transistor?

Referential Transparency

Referential Transparency refers to the idea that one Component can replace another Component.

Q: What is the base minimum required for Referential Transparency? Pick only one, the most important one:

  • Immutable State
  • Ownership
  • Isolation