• Nesting


Scoping is nesting.

Structured Programming suggested ways to scope control flow.

Control flow spaghetti was discarded in lieue of structured control-flow concepts such as while loops.

[N.B. The problem of Global Variables was, also, solved by using nesting (scoping), although this was not fundamentally a control-flow problem]

What is not nested in today’s PLs?

  • functions
  • types
  • CPS
  • environments

Package Managers

Packaging, package managers, are attempts at providing nesting for symbols.

The fact that there is more than one kind of package manager implies that the concept has not been normalized, yet.


Docker is an attempt at providing nesting and isolation.


Environments and environment variables are just another use of flat global entities.

In this case, isolation is implicitly provided by the physical hardware.

See Also

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