Business organizations are built in a scalable manner.
Business organizations are described by ORG Charts.
ORG Charts are usually expressed as trees.
Managers at higher levels in the ORG Chart pass commands/requirements down to mid-level managers. Mid-level managers pass commands/requirements down to lower-level managers and so on until the commands reach the bottom of the tree.
Mid-level managers “report” upwards to higher-level managers providing summaries of activities and eliding details.
In a smooth-running business, no manager - at any level - is swamped by detail.
Breaking the Tree Structure
Businesses use the phrases “micro-management” and “going over the boss’s head” to describe non-scalable violations of the organization’s tree structure.
In software, we call these kinds of violations dags instead of trees.